THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

Development of private enterprise in the middle of 1920: the features and the causes of crash (on material of the lower Volga region)

2016. №2, pp. 26-32

Kotelnikov Aleksey S. - postgraduate student, Astrakhan State University, 20a Tatishcheva Str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation,

Private enterprise in the 1920 was the one part of a mixed economy of Russia, which developed under the influence of natural and historical factors. Attempt to momentary failure of a mixed economy, carried out by the Bolsheviks during the "war communism" policy, has become one of the major causes of the economic and political crisis of 1920, when a large part of the peasantry rose against the authority, when ferment began among the working class in the cities. Return to the natural mixed economy has become one of the major achievements of the new economic policy. Although since the first days of its declaration, private enterprise was under serious pressure from the authorities, because it was ideological contradictions with the ruling party. But as a result of inner struggle in the RCP (b) - (VKP (b) in the middle of 1920 began to enjoy great influence defenders of economic liberalization in the framework of the new economic policy (N.I. Bukharin, A.I. Rykov, and others). The studies of archival documents and materials of the newspapers of those years show that flourishing of the private enterprise falls in the middle of the 1920. In the region it is display in the trade, the services sector, the fishing industry and the grain procurements. The studies of private enterprise development help to understand in the work of law enforcement agencies in the 1920. It in daily practice had to deal with the imperfection of the legislation regulating this field of activity, as well as pressure from the party bodies, demanding ousting private capital from the economy.

Key words: СССР, РКП(б), ВКП(б), новая экономическая политика, нэпман, частное предпринимательство, многоукладная экономика, многоукладность, экономика, рыбная промышленность, USSR, RCP(B), CPSU (b), new economic policy, shopkeeper, private enterprises, mixed economy, stratification, economy, fishing industry