THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

The appearance of Kalmyks in the lower Volga region and the beginning of their military service for Russia

2013. №3, pp. 23-27

Tsyuryumov Aleksandr V.  - D.Sc. (History), Professor, Kalmyk State University, 11, Pushkin st., Elista, 358000, Russia,,

This article is dedicated to the history of appearing of Kalmyk nomads in the Lower Volga region. In the beginning of the XVII century the Kalmyk nomad camps migrated from the steppe of Central Asia to the towns of South Siberia then moving to Volga while pursuing the Nogais. The arrival of Kalmyks into the interfluves of Jayiq and Volga did not meet the interests of Russia and alarmed local Astrakhan war chiefs. However, they did not enough military power to stop the nomads. Therefore, the Russian authorities required to set hostages free. Already in 1642 the Kalmyks appeared near Don and set contacts with local Cossack chieftains. After two years a crucial event took place – the Kalmyk leaders, Tayshis, launched a military campaign over Volga against the Nogais who wandered on Terek together with Nogai princes, Mirzas. During the 40-s, the Kalmyks held a series of negotiations on which they proved that it was impossible for them to return over Volga. The situation changed only in the first half of the 50-s when they were engaged in the war against Poland.

Key words: kalmyks,nomads,Astrakhan war chiefs,Don Cossacks,Nogais,Kabarda