THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

Some thougts about the wooden astrakhan kremlin and location of the rascat tower on the basis of archeologycal data

2017. №4, pp. 11-18

Vasilev D.V. - Ph.D. (History), Astrakhan State University, 20a Tatischeva Str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation,

The article deals with the circumstances of the construction of the first Astrakhan Kremlin. The author suggests that the transfer of Tatar Astrakhan to the left bank, under the protection of the Volga river, could take place in the XV century. It is possible that the town of Haji-Tarkhan was a seasonal settlement by the time of the Russian conquest, and the town "Chungur", mentioned in the sources, which is localized on the Moshayik settlement to the east of modern Astrakhan, served as the main rate. The author joins the view that the Kremlin was founded on August 1, 1558. Based on the studies of previous years, as well as on archaeological data, the author clarifies the shape and location of the walls and towers of the wooden kremlin. In addition, the author proposes a solution to one of the mysteries of the Astrakhan Kremlin - the location of its eighth tower, which was not inscribed in the system of external walls. The artillery tower named Rascat, judging by the architectural and archaeological data, can be localized in the center of the modern territory of the Kremlin, at the highest point of the Kremlin hillock. Judging by the architectural scheme of the wooden kremlin made during the restoration work, the tower was located here. It could serve as the main gate-tower of the wooden Kremlin on the east side, and then it was preserved after the demolition of the wooden walls, as it was converted for circular artillery shelling. Indirect confirmation of this can be the presence of the remains of a deep hollow on the Kremlin hillock from the north and the discovery during the excavation of the remains of a ravine on the southern slope of the hillock. These depressions may be the remains of a covered initial urban ditch in front of the eastern wall of a wooden kremlin.

Key words: Астрахань, Хаджи-Тархан, кремль, фортификация, архитектура, археология, средневековье, краеведение, башня Раскат, Волга, Astrakhan, Hadji-Tarkhan, the Kremlin, fortification, architecture, archeology, the Middle Ages, local lore, the Rascat tower, Volga