THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

About the history of relations between China and the Kalmyk Khanate in the first quarter of XVIII century

2017. №1, pp. 15-21

Tsyuryumov A.V. - Ph.D. (History), Professor, The Gorodovikov Kalmyk State University, 11 Pushkina St., Elista, 358000, Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation,

The article is concerned with the history of ambassadorial relations between Kalmyk Khanate and the Qing Empire in the first quarter of XVIII century. We used the already well-known published materials and materials for the first time introduced into a science. They show important role of the Kalmyk Khanate not only in the foreign political system of Russia, but also in international relations in the Central Asian region. Archival sources turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries show the interest of Kalmyks in the implementation of contacts through China to Tibet. It was demonstrated that the purpose of the Chinese authorities`policy was to engage the Kalmyk Khanate to the war with Jungar on the side of the Ch'ing. Chinese Embassy of Tulishen negotiated with the Kalmyk Khan Ayuka. Scientific literature widely covers this embassy. The article analyzes the Kalmyks position in this matter. They were interested in maintaining peaceful relations with China and Dzungar Khanate. Some involved specialists argue that Ayuka took a neutral position. First of all, it was dictated also by politics of the Russian Empire. During these years, Russia has also repeatedly advocated the normalization of relations with Dzungar Khanate and the Qing Empire. In addition it was important to complete subordination Kalmyks in the sphere of international relations.

Key words: Kalmykia, Russia, international relations, the Volga region, the embassy, Jungar Khanate, Tibet