THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

The political activity and controversy of french intellectuals in the 20-30-ies of XX century

2015. №4, pp. 133-141

Nikandrov A.V. - Ph.D. (Policy), Associate Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 27 Lomonosovskiy ave., GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation,

The article is devoted to polemics and political activities of French intellectuals - Julien Benda, Paul Nizan, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse - which these intellectuals were in the 20-30-ies of XX century. The controversy associated with disputes about the betrayal and desertion, for the problem of the autonomy of intellectuals - one of the major problems of the relationship of intellectual and policy - develops into a debate about the attitude of intellectuals and the Communist party. Participation in numerous political organizations and activities associated with the Communist party, made by a number of French intellectuals, has been severely criticized by their colleagues. In 30-ies of XX century among the French intellectuals put forward the idea that the meaning of activities of the intellectual in politics, his most important political role is the protection of culture. This interpretation of the role of the intellectual is associated with the name Romain Rolland, in long discussions with the intellectual Communist Henri Barbusse were long before the release of the pamphlets of J. Benda formulated and solved many issues that haven’t found their resolution in the controversy around the works of J. Benda. In 1919 H. Barbusse, with the participation of R. Rolland founded the international independent from political parties organization of intellectuals - the group “Clarté” was aimed to involve in the political struggle of wide circles of the intelligentsia to withdraw them, bringing political education of the masses. This organization served as a prototype and model for all future unions of intellectuals pursuing the objectives of the fight against fascism and protection of culture. “Clarté” is the first fundamentally new movement of the intelligentsia and intellectuals, created for political purposes, but independent of political parties, organizations and figures, with its own ideological basis and purpose.

Key words: интеллектуалы, классовая борьба, предательство интеллектуалов, дезертирство интеллектуалов, коммунисты, Коминтерн, независимость интеллектуалов, независимость духа, антифашизм, intellectuals, class struggle, the betrayal of the intellectuals, the desertion of the intellectuals, the Communists, the Comintern, independence from of intellectuals, independence of spirit, anti-fascism