THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

State regulation of the private capital in the 1920s: the regional features

2015. 4, pp. 47-53

Kotelnikov A.S. - postgraduate student, Astrakhan State University, 20a Tatishcheva Str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation,

The author shows the local peculiarities of the state regulation of private capital in the Astrakhan province in the period of the new economic policy. The author notes that the Astrakhan province was the region where private capital received the maximum development, especially in the fishing industry and trade, in the 1920s. The new economic policy allowed the enterprise and free trade, which has a positive impact on the restoration of the destroyed economy. However, in the early years of the NEP, when there was a lease of non-performing businesses, uncover, laid the foundation in the period of “war communism”, the system weaknesses of the Soviet economic mechanism. This is a “birthmark” of the Soviet economic model has not been overcome in the years of the NEP. And yet, in spite of the obstacles of the part of the bureaucracy, the development of private capital has allowed to recover and stabilize the economy of the Astrakhan region, especially the foundation of its economy fishing industry, in short period. The flourishing of the NEP enterprises came in 1926/1927 business year. Then, in the Astrakhan province, there were 1939 private commercial and industrial enterprises, 334 state enterprises, and 161 cooperative enterprises. The private traders have about half of the total trade turnover - 224 million rubles. The share of private enterprises reached to 44.6 % in the economy of the Astrakhan province the in 1928. Soviet leadership headed for exclusion of the private capitalist from the national economy after the 1927. But, in some regions, including Astrakhan region, private capitalist continued to develop, and even strengthened its position. The decision of the central party and government bodies, which restricted the activities of private capital, sabotaged by local authorities until 1929. It needed a repressive intervention of the Centre to bring the fishing industry to the state monopoly. Afterwards, these events spring and summer of 1929 were called “astrahanschiny”. It was one of the largest processes under shopkeepers and corrupt officials in the country, ending the new economic policy.

Key words: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , NEP, shopkeeper, the new economic policy, Astrakhan, Astrakhan province, astrahanschina, region, the enterprise, the entrepreneur, fishing industry, fishery, war communism, central authority, the official, the trade, the lease, trial