THE CASPIAN REGION:Politics, Economics, Culture

Scientific journal

The grain market development during the new economic policy: problems regulation and kon-competition (on the materials of Volga region)

2015. №2, pp. 24-30

Vinogradov Sergey V. - D.Sc. (History), Professor, Astrakhan State University, 20Р° Tatishchev st., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation,

At the article author analyzes the problem of competition different economic structures in the 1920s. Rebirth of stratification domestic economy, as a result, of the new economic policy led to the reconstruction of the private capital. The new capitalists - shopkeepers to using the weakness of the state, poor legal framework, inexperience and greed of new officials making a fortune, plundering state enterprises. The author based on archival documents shows how important for the country grain market has become a field of fierce competition of public and private organizations involved in harvesting grain. Using the pre-revolutionary experience, the connections, a thorough knowledge of the business, as well as corruption in the government, private companies began to press the government in the blank grain in the middle 1920s. In addition to wheat and rye were the basis of food for most of the country, the sale of grain on the world market is the main source of foreign currency funds necessary for the implementation of industrialization. Knowing this, private entrepreneurs have broken state plans on harvesting rye and wheat in 1925 and forced the government to buy their grain at high price to fulfill obligations to foreign buyers on a future crop contracts. The party-state authorities have been intensively press out private grain-procurement firm from the market by administrative measures in the second half of the 1920s. Analyze of archival documents shows that the direct management of the process has carried out at the level the Gubkom VKP (b), which underlines the financial strength and capabilities "bread of the capitalists." Private capital was been superseded from the grain market in 1928.

Key words: новая экономическая политика, СССР, ВКП(б), Поволжье, зерно, пшеница, рожь, рынок, торговля, многоукладность, конкуренция, частный капитал, нэпман, частные зернозаготовительные фирмы, New Economic Policy, Soviet Union, VKP (b), Volga region, grain, wheat, rye, market, commerce, stratification, competition, private capital, shopkeeper, private grain-procurement firm